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29 November, 2018

Statistical News Release: Index of Abundance for Scottish Terrestrial Breeding Birds, 1994 to 2017

An Official Statistics Publication for Scotland

Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) has today released the latest figures tracking the abundance of Scotland’s terrestrial breeding birds.

Over the long term (1994-2017), the all-species (smoothed) index increased steadily up to the mid-2000s, subsequently fluctuating between 12% and 23% above the 1994 index value. It is currently 16% higher than in 1994 (using the smoothed indices – see note 2).

Over the short term (2016-2017), using the unsmoothed indices, the all-species index increased by 8%, the farmland bird index increased by 9% and the woodland bird index increased by 5%. The upland bird index change was not significant.

Analysis of habitat specific trends did show some change over the long term: woodland birds increased by 69%; the farmland bird index showed a steady increase up to the late-2000s, subsequently fluctuating between 13% and 23% above the 1994 value; in 2017 it was 14% higher than in 1994. Upland birds decreased by 17% over the same period.

There are numerous explanations for the long-term trends observed. These differ between species and include the conditions experienced in wintering areas (e.g. blackcap), the ability of some birds to exploit different food sources (e.g. goldfinch) or land use changes (e.g. curlew and golden plover).


Media enquiries: Please contact SNH press & public relations officer Catriona Webster on 0131 316 2638 or

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Notes to editors

1. The full statistical publication can be accessed at:

2. Smoothed indices are a statistical way of removing the year-to-year fluctuations that naturally appear, for example because of weather conditions or sampling variations, to allow the underlying trend to be more easily seen.

3. The data used in the report primarily come from the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) and Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) (

4. Official statistics are produced by professionally independent statistical staff in accordance with the Code of Practice for Official Statistics.

5. Scottish Natural Heritage is the government's adviser on all aspects of nature and landscape across Scotland. Our role is to help everyone understand, value and enjoy Scotland's nature now, and in the future. For more information, visit our website at or follow us at

Scottish Natural Heritage is Scotland's nature agency. We work to improve our natural environment in Scotland and inspire everyone to care more about it. We work to ensure that all nature in Scotland - our key habitats and landscapes, all our green space and our native species - is maintained, enhanced and brings us benefits. It is the job of all of us to achieve a balance in the sensitive management of our natural world in order to maintain and enhance biodiversity. For more information, visit our website at or follow us on Twitter at

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